Multiple studies amusement the FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines proceed to beryllium effectual against the delta variant of the coronavirus, adjacent if the potency of the vaccines is somewhat reduced. But a impermanent connected Fox News falsely claimed the delta variant “really is not responsive astatine all, oregon protected astatine each by the vaccines” and determination is “no objective crushed to spell get vaccinated.”
Update, Aug. 23: The Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, which was antecedently authorized by the Food and Drug Administration for exigency use, received full approval from the bureau connected Aug. 23 for radical 16 years of property and older.
The highly contagious delta variant of the coronavirus present accounts for 82% of caller COVID-19 cases successful the U.S., according to estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and is partially liable for the rising fig of infections crossed the vast majority of the country.
Data show that portion the authorized COVID-19 vaccines whitethorn beryllium little protective against delta successful preventing infections and symptomatic unwellness compared with earlier versions of SARS-CoV-2, they inactive mostly stay effectual — and are precise bully astatine preventing superior illness and death.
As CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky said successful a July 16 property briefing, “This is becoming a pandemic of the unvaccinated,” arsenic outbreaks proceed successful places with debased vaccination rates.
But that’s not the connection Fox News impermanent Dr. Peter McCullough has been spreading. In a July 13 interview on “The Ingraham Angle,” the backstage signifier internist played down the risks of the delta variant and falsely said determination was “no objective crushed to spell get vaccinated.”
“We are astatine a precise debased baseline now,” helium said successful reply to big Laura Ingraham, who asked him what to expect adjacent from the pandemic. “We are going to person a flimsy emergence with the delta variant, but the delta variant truly is not responsive astatine all, oregon protected astatine each by the vaccines. So 42% of 90,000 proven delta cases successful the U.K. person been vaccinated. In Israel, the estimation close present from the Israel wellness authorities that the vaccine efficacy complaint is lone astir 60 to 70%. So we expect delta cases and successful afloat vaccinated individuals. It volition beryllium a mild rise. It’s easy treatable successful high-risk patients. There is nary crushed close now, nary objective crushed to spell get vaccinated.”
As we’ll explain, McCullough, who has antecedently been a source of COVID-19 misinformation, including astir vaccines, is close astir the Israeli percentage, but incorrect astir the U.K. 1 — and determination is an abundance of information contradicting his assertion that the vaccines bash thing against the delta variant.
As for the thought that COVID-19 is “easily treatable,” determination is small to enactment that conception arsenic well, particularly with hundreds of Americans inactive dying each time from the disease.
“You’re much, overmuch amended disconnected being vaccinated than not,” Frederic Bushman, co-director of the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Research connected Coronaviruses and Other Emerging Pathogens, told us. “The delta variant whitethorn trim the effectiveness [of the vaccines] a little, but inactive they’re truthful effectual that you get a batch of benefit.”
Scientists don’t person accusation from the objective trials astir however good the FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines execute against the delta variant due to the fact that the signifier 3 trials were done astatine a clip earlier the variant was circulating widely. The variant, besides known arsenic B.1.617.2, was first identified in India successful October 2020 and is more than twice as transmissible arsenic the archetypal versions of the coronavirus, according to the CDC. Some data also suggest delta whitethorn origin much terrible disease, but this has not been conclusively established.
There are, however, aggregate studies of however the vaccines are faring successful the real-world against delta, and astir amusement the vaccines are moving mostly arsenic expected.
A study published successful the New England Journal of Medicine on July 21 by Public Health England, for example, recovered that aft the 2 recommended doses, the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine successful preventing symptomatic illness successful the U.K. fell lone slightly, to 88.0% against delta from 93.7% against the alpha variant — another more contagious version of the virus, known arsenic B.1.1.7, that antecedently predominated successful the country. The authors, however, noted that a larger diminution and little effectiveness was observed aft a azygous dose, underscoring the value of receiving some immunizations.
In an unpublished study that has not yet been adjacent reviewed, the U.K. wellness bureau besides recovered the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was precise effectual astatine preventing hospitalization with the delta variant, reducing the hazard by 94% aft 1 dose and by 96% aft two.
Other countries person reported akin preliminary results. In an unpublished study from Ontario, Canada, researchers estimated the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine against symptomatic corruption with delta to beryllium 87% aft 2 doses, portion a report from Scotland, published successful the British aesculapian diary the Lancet, pegged the fig astatine 79% for corruption with delta.
The Canadian study besides recovered that 1 dose of the Moderna vaccine was 70% effectual successful preventing symptomatic illness and 95% effectual successful preventing hospitalization oregon death; determination were excessively fewer COVID-19 cases among the vaccinated to estimation the effectiveness aft 2 doses.
Meanwhile, successful Israel, the wellness ministry released preliminary, unpublished information on July 5 suggesting that with the emergence of the delta variant successful the nation, the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine was present 64% effectual against corruption oregon symptomatic illness, but inactive 93% effectual successful preventing superior unwellness and hospitalization. The ministry had previously estimated the vaccine to beryllium 97% effectual against symptomatic disease, with akin levels of extortion against hospitalization and death, astatine a clip erstwhile the alpha variant made up the immense bulk of COVID-19 cases.
McCullough, therefore, is close that Israel estimated the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine effectiveness astatine “only astir 60 to 70%.” But that is inactive a important magnitude of extortion — and McCullough neglects to notation the vaccine’s fantabulous quality to forestall the worst outcomes of COVID-19.
In precocious July, the ministry further reduced its vaccine effectiveness estimation for symptomatic COVID-19 to 40.5%, but erstwhile again, recovered extortion against terrible illness to stay robust — 88.0% effectual against hospitalization and 91.4% effectual against terrible COVID-19.
It’s worthy mentioning that some experts doubt the accuracy of the Israeli estimates, which are outliers compared with the different results and trust connected a antithetic methodology. In its July 27 technological little connected the vaccines, the CDC said “more method accusation is needed to let afloat interpretation.”
The astir caller Israeli figure, successful particular, is based on a tiny fig of cases implicit a abbreviated play of clip and should beryllium considered preliminary, according to an adept advising the Israeli authorities connected the coronavirus. The ministry itself also acknowledged the results mightiness beryllium skewed due to the fact that of differential investigating among the vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.
Calculating vaccine efficacy, which is the metric utilized successful objective trials, is comparatively straightforward and little prone to bias due to the fact that the groups getting vaccinated oregon a placebo are randomized, though it cannot seizure definite aspects of the vaccine’s show nether real-world conditions, specified arsenic changes successful the virus, imperfect vaccine retention conditions, oregon however good definite individuals mightiness respond, arsenic the CDC explains.
In contrast, estimating effectiveness — the word utilized for observational studies that get astatine the effect of the vaccines successful the existent satellite — is much hard due to the fact that different features astir those who are vaccinated oregon not mightiness power the likelihood of corruption oregon illness.
Several experts pointed america to the U.K. survey arsenic the astir robust to date, though much information are needed to amended recognize however good the vaccines enactment against delta, and things could alteration successful the future.
“I would accidental the champion papers is the New England Journal of Medicine paper,” said Dr. Peter Hotez, a vaccine adept and the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine astatine Baylor College of Medicine. “I deliberation that looks beauteous sound, and it makes sense,” helium said, that the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine mightiness spell down somewhat for symptomatic illness, but inactive clasp up good against terrible disease.
“Those information look accordant with the USA acquisition truthful far,” said Shane Crotty, an immunologist astatine the La Jolla Institute for Immunology who has been studying COVID-19, of the U.K. paper, successful an email. “Most hospitalization[s] are of unvaccinated people, and astir of the outbreaks are successful debased vaccination states truthful far.”
Regardless of the specifics, McCullough’s effort to usage Israeli and U.K. information to reason against immunization contradicts the conclusions and calculations of the wellness agencies successful those countries.
As we already said, Israel’s wellness ministry has consistently recovered vaccination results successful a much than 90% simplification successful the hazard of terrible disease, adjacent against delta. The ministry also announced on July 25 that a authorities investigation recovered that “vaccinated individuals with pre-existing conditions are amended protected against superior unwellness compared to non-vaccinated individuals without immoderate hazard factors.”
And Public Health England, which has mostly relied connected the AstraZeneca vaccine, estimates that full vaccination lowers the hazard of symptomatic illness by 79% and the hazard of terrible unwellness by 96% against the delta variant. Vaccination is highly recommended successful some nations.
Lab Studies of Vaccine Immune Responses
The different acceptable of accusation astir however good the vaccines mightiness bash against delta oregon different variants comes from laboratory tests assessing the immune responses successful those who person been vaccinated.
One communal experimentation is to instrumentality humor samples from vaccinated volunteers and trial whether the antibodies contiguous successful the sera tin inactive neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants oregon viruses engineered to person the variant spike proteins.
Many of these types of studies amusement that astir afloat vaccinated radical nutrient alleged neutralizing antibodies that enactment against delta, but astatine a little level than with ancestral versions of the coronavirus — and successful negligible amounts if immunized with lone 1 dose of the two-dose vaccines.
One study, for example, published connected July 8 in Nature as an unedited manuscript by researchers successful France, recovered that 94% of radical afloat vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine produced antibodies that could neutralize the delta virus, but lone 13% of radical did the aforesaid aft 1 dose, with akin results for the AstraZeneca vaccine, which has been wide utilized successful the U.K.
A akin paper published in Nature in June with enactment from Pfizer and BioNTech recovered that neutralization of the delta variant by serum from radical immunized with that vaccine was “only modestly reduced” compared with the archetypal virus.
Multiple other studies have identified small or mean decreases successful neutralization against delta aft vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech oregon Moderna vaccines, suggesting that they clasp astir of their effectiveness against the variant.
Less accusation is disposable astir the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, though the company announced on July 1 that 2 tiny studies, 1 of which is now published in the New England Journal of Medicine, amusement that vaccinated radical nutrient antibodies that tin neutralize delta and that they person long-lasting T compartment responses.
More recently, an unpublished study from NYU Grossman School of Medicine recovered importantly little neutralizing antibody enactment against delta successful radical vaccinated with the J&J vaccine compared with the 2 mRNA vaccines, raising the concern that the azygous dose vaccine mightiness request a booster.
But experts accidental it’s hard to marque steadfast conclusions based connected that data. Baylor’s Hotez, for example, said there’s “still a large leap” betwixt laboratory tests and however good the vaccines execute successful people. Importantly, helium said, neutralizing antibody levels were besides little against the beta variant that was archetypal detected successful South Africa (B.1.351), but objective trials demonstrated the J&J vaccine was still effective there, albeit to a lesser degree. That makes it likely, helium said, that the J&J vaccine provides “some level of protection” against delta. For its part, J&J notes that successful its studies, antibody levels against delta are higher than those against beta.
Dr. Eric Topol, a prof of molecular medicine astatine Scripps Research, said on Twitter that the results of the 2 antibody studies weren’t really contradictory, arsenic determination were inactive detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies successful the NYU preprint.
Indeed, portion of the occupation is that scientists have not yet fully identified alleged correlates of protection, oregon immune markers that tin beryllium utilized to cognize whether a vaccine volition beryllium protective, specified arsenic what antibody titer, oregon level, is needed to forestall corruption oregon disease.
It’s worthy noting, too, that contempt the accent connected antibody levels, which are comparatively casual to cheque successful the blood, determination are also the already primed antibody-producing B cells and T cells that tin rapidly outpouring into enactment and bounds an corruption if a vaccinated idiosyncratic is exposed to the coronavirus.
Coronavirus Infections Expected Among the Vaccinated
As portion of his statement that the COVID-19 vaccines don’t enactment against delta, McCullough claimed that “42% of 90,000 proven delta cases successful the U.K. person been vaccinated.”
We asked him for the root of this statement, and helium told america it came from the U.K. government’s technical briefing on the variants from June 25. But the study really shows that lone 7,235 radical retired of 92,029 delta cases, oregon 7.9%, were afloat vaccinated, portion 58% were unvaccinated and the remainder were partially vaccinated oregon did not person vaccination information. By inaccurately citing 42%, McCullough gives the mendacious content that the vaccines are failing connected a wide standard against delta.
More important, experts accidental it tin beryllium misleading to look astatine these kinds of percentages without the larger context. That’s due to the fact that nary vaccine is 100% effective. So arsenic vaccination rates spell up, much and much of the radical who get COVID-19 volition person been immunized, but less full radical volition get the disease.
“As much folks get #vaccinated, the % of folks who get sick with #COVID19 & hap to beryllium vaccinated volition increase. This is expected,” explained Maia Majumder, a computational epidemiologist astatine Boston Children’s Hospital, connected Twitter. “[I]t doesn’t mean that #vaccines aren’t working; rather, it reflects the realities of probability.”
She pointed to a handy graphic by the Financial Times that does the mathematics and shows however it’s imaginable to person 40% of infirmary admissions beryllium among vaccinated people, adjacent if the vaccine is 80% effective.
The U.K. and Israel person immoderate of the highest vaccination rates successful the world, truthful their information tin beryllium casual to misinterpret.
For now, akin percentages successful the U.S. stay compelling. According to the CDC, less than 3% of COVID-19 hospitalizations betwixt January and May were successful afloat vaccinated people. CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky besides has said that preliminary information from a postulation of states for the archetypal fractional of 2021 suggest that 99.5% of COVID-19 deaths person been successful the unvaccinated.
But these numbers volition alteration seemingly for the worse, adjacent if vaccine show holds. The numbers that radical should truly wage attraction to, says Wake Forest University statistician Lucy D’Agostino McGowan, are the fractions of the vaccinated and unvaccinated who dice oregon are hospitalized due to the fact that of COVID-19. As she explains successful a blog post, it’s the examination of those 2 numbers that gives an close presumption of however good the vaccines work.
So far, the CDC says it has not observed a disproportionate fig of alleged “breakthrough” cases — instances of corruption oregon illness contempt vaccination — from immoderate variant, though it switched to monitoring lone breakthrough hospitalizations and deaths successful May.
The bureau noted successful its technological little connected vaccination that an unpublished study from Houston that has yet to beryllium adjacent reviewed recovered that “Delta caused a importantly higher complaint of breakthrough infections successful afloat vaccinated radical compared with infections from different variants.” That insubstantial besides recovered that lone 6.5% of each COVID-19 cases were successful afloat vaccinated radical and fewer of those cases required hospitalization.
Indeed, the astir important message, experts and nationalist wellness officials say, is that adjacent if the disposable vaccines person diminished effectiveness against delta successful preventing corruption and mild disease, they stay highly effectual against the worst outcomes and are a critical tool for reigning successful the pandemic.
“The vaccines inactive enactment truly well, they conscionable don’t enactment rather arsenic well,” Penn’s Bushman said. “You’re overmuch little apt to get infected. If you get infected, you’re overmuch little apt to get earnestly ill.”
A CDC study published on July 22 successful the New England Journal of Medicine found that for some the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, vaccination helped trim the severity of COVID-19 successful a radical of wellness attraction workers erstwhile they were infected, shortening the unwellness and cutting the accidental of having a fever.
An unpublished study from India, posted to the preprint server medRxiv connected July 16, likewise recovered that afloat immunization with an Indian-manufactured AstraZeneca vaccine oregon the inactivated vaccine from India’s Bharat Biotech was associated with a 50% little hazard of decease among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, astir each of whom had been sickened with the delta variant. Vaccinated patients besides had little terrible disease, adjacent though they were older and had much hazard factors.
The accidental of having a breakthrough corruption appears to spell up with property and is much apt successful radical who are immunocompromised, according to studies reviewed by the CDC. That fits with what’s expected, and could pb the bureau to urge booster shots for definite populations, which the CDC’s vaccine advisory committee has started to discuss.
Update, Aug. 13: The Food and Drug Administration authorized a 3rd dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines for definite radical with weakened immune systems connected Aug. 12, with the CDC’s vaccine advisory committee and the agency endorsing that determination the pursuing day. The CDC recommends an other dose only for radical who are “moderately to severely” immunocompromised, specified arsenic organ transplant recipients oregon those undergoing crab treatment.
One interest with delta is that if vaccinated radical bash go infected with the variant, they whitethorn inactive beryllium capable to transmit the microorganism to others. The CDC has said this is suggested by information showing that the magnitude of microorganism successful vaccinated radical infected with delta is astir the aforesaid arsenic those who weren’t vaccinated.
The agency cited the caller evidence in its rationale to alteration its mask recommendations on July 27 to person afloat vaccinated radical deterioration masks indoors in areas with “substantial” oregon “high” transmission. Vaccinated people, however, would inactive beryllium little apt to dispersed the microorganism than unvaccinated radical due to the fact that they’re little apt to beryllium infected successful the archetypal place. (See our SciCheck article, “A Guide to the CDC’s Updated Mask Recommendation.”)
It’s worthy noting that not each breakthrough infections are needfully an wholly atrocious happening — provided they are mild and don’t pb to further dispersed of the virus — arsenic they could act as a benignant of “booster” to the vaccine, reinforcing the body’s existing immune effect against the microorganism and strengthening it. But of course, vaccinated radical should not question retired infections, arsenic these tin inactive beryllium risky and can include persistent symptoms of “long COVID-19.”
Although determination is simply a scope of views, galore experts accidental that portion the vaccines clasp the quality to support against superior disease, determination is small crushed for astir radical to get an further immunization.
“I deliberation what we’re seeing successful information that’s being generated successful antithetic parts of the world, adjacent astir the delta variant, is that these vaccines are precise highly protective against terrible COVID, hospitalization and death,” said Dr. Anna P. Durbin of Johns Hopkins University’s Center for Immunization Research successful the July 19 variation of the school’s “Public Health On Call” podcast. “The champion mode that we tin power COVID and power the procreation of these caller variants and variants of interest is to get arsenic galore radical successful the satellite vaccinated arsenic possible. So, close now, based connected the information that we have, to me, it makes acold much consciousness — acold greater consciousness — to supply the remainder of the satellite with arsenic galore doses of vaccines arsenic we perchance can.”
Bushman agreed. “Ethically, it’s the close happening to do, trying to rotation retired vaccines to places that don’t person it,” helium said. “And from a purely self-serving view, I deliberation it’s besides the astir effectual people of enactment to support ourselves.”
Durbin, however, cautioned that this could change. Hotez likewise said that helium thinks it’s apt that yet an other changeable volition beryllium needed, but not needfully for the delta variant.
COVID-19 Not ‘Easily Treatable’
Part of McCullough’s statement for wherefore vaccines aren’t indispensable is that COVID-19 is already “easily treatable successful high-risk patients.” But determination remain few treatments that person demonstrated immoderate payment to COVID-19 patients and nary that render attraction easy.
In effect to an enquiry from FactCheck.org, McCullough further claimed that due to the fact that aboriginal attraction “modifies the severity and hazard of hospitalization and decease of the disease,” statements astir vaccines reducing illness severity “would person to relationship for aboriginal treatment.” He cited several studies advocating unproven drugs arsenic portion of that aboriginal attraction protocol. “To my cognition nary specified information exists to enactment immoderate assertion that successful summation to aboriginal attraction the vaccine has immoderate effect connected outcomes,” helium added.
But Caitlin Rivers, an epidemiologist astatine Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, told america that his logic was flawed.
“For aboriginal attraction to confound outcomes successful radical who are infected, it would person to beryllium offered lone to radical who are vaccinated,” Rivers said successful an email to FactCheck.org. “But that’s intelligibly not the lawsuit – radical who are unvaccinated person the aforesaid entree to aesculapian care. The grounds that vaccines support against terrible unwellness is precise strong.”
Moreover, McCullough’s version of aboriginal attraction is with a operation of therapies that includes respective drugs that the National Institutes of Health recommends against using, including hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Another of the drugs, dexamethasone, has been shown to assistance COVID-19 patients, but only successful circumstantial circumstances in hospitalized patients — not during aboriginal treatment, which the NIH advises against.
The only drugs the NIH recommends utilizing aboriginal are immoderate of the synthetic monoclonal antibodies that people SARS-CoV-2, which are designed to forestall the microorganism from entering cells, and are for high-risk patients only. But again, determination is nary crushed to deliberation that vaccinated and unvaccinated radical would person differential entree to those treatments.
Editor’s note: SciCheck’s COVID-19/Vaccination Project is made imaginable by a assistance from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The instauration has no control over our editorial decisions, and the views expressed successful our articles bash not needfully bespeak the views of the foundation. The extremity of the task is to summation vulnerability to close accusation astir COVID-19 and vaccines, portion decreasing the interaction of misinformation.
“COVID Data Tracker.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
“COVID Data Tracker Weekly Review.” CDC. 23 Jul 2021.
“Science Brief: COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination.” CDC. Updated 27 Jul 2021.
“Press Briefing by White House COVID-19 Response Team and Public Health Officials.” White House. 16 Jul 2021.
“Vaccines are a safer alternate for acquiring immunity compared to earthy corruption and COVID-19 survivors payment from getting vaccinated, contrary to claims by Peter McCullough.” Health Feedback. 4 Jun 2021.
Banet, Rémi. “US cardiologist makes mendacious claims astir Covid-19 vaccination.” AFP Fact Check. 9 Apr 2021.
Bushman, Frederic D. William Maul Measey Professor successful Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine. Phone interrogation with FactCheck.org. 21 Jul 2021.
“Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants.” World Health Organization. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Christie, Athalia et al. “Guidance for Implementing COVID-19 Prevention Strategies successful the Context of Varying Community Transmission Levels and Vaccination Coverage.” MMWR. 27 Jul 2021.
Sheikh, Aziz et al. “SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC successful Scotland: demographics, hazard of infirmary admission, and vaccine effectiveness.” The Lancet. 14 Jun 2021.
Ong, Sean Wei Xiang et al. “Clinical and Virological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern: A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.315 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta).” SSRN. 7 Jun 2021.
Fisman, David N. and Ashleigh R. Tuite. “Progressive Increase successful Virulence of Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants successful Ontario, Canada.” medRxiv. 12 July 2021.
Lopez Bernal, Jamie et al. “Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant.” New England Journal of Medicine. 21 Jul 2021.
“SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Stowe, Julia et al. “Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against infirmary admittance with the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant.” Preprint posted connected Public Health England website. 14 Jun 2021.
Nasreen, Sharifa et al. “Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against variants of interest successful Ontario, Canada.”medRxiv. 13 Jul 2021.
“Decline successful Vaccine Effectiveness Against Infection and Symptomatic Illness.” Press release. Israeli Ministry of Health. 5 Jul 2021.
“Explanation About the Effectiveness of the Vaccine for Coronavirus successful Israel.” Press release. Israeli Ministry of Health. 6 Jul 2021.
Haas, Eric J. et al. “Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths pursuing a nationwide vaccination run successful Israel: an observational survey utilizing nationalist surveillance data.” The Lancet. 15 May 2021.
“Data Compiled by the Vaccine Operation’s Supervising Committee Published.” Press release. Israeli Ministry of Health. 22 Jul 2021.
Hart, Robert. “Protect Against The Delta Variant? Here’s What We Know.” Forbes. 13 Jul 2021.
Jeffay, Nathan. “Israeli survey claims large driblet successful vaccine protection; experts don’t judge it.” Times of Israel. 21 Jul 2021.
Zimmer, Carl. “The satellite is disquieted astir the Delta microorganism variant. Studies amusement vaccines are effectual against it.” New York Times. 6 Jul 2021.
Bhattacharya, Deepta (@deeptabhattacha). “I’m going to person to bash a thread connected wherefore I deliberation the complaint of VE diminution reported by Israel MOH is immunologically unlikely, but until past pls spot this informative post. Weird signifier of corruption hazard adjacent erstwhile accelerated waning/Delta is not a plausible explanation.” Twitter. 24 Jul 2021.
Topol, Eric (@EricTopol). “Summary @FT of vaccine effectiveness, AZ & mRNA, against Delta successful aggregate reported studies. The Israel MoH is an outlier. The others each amusement precocious levels of extortion with 2 doses vs terrible illness; mRNA vs corruption ~85-90%.” Twitter. 9 Jul 2021.
Zimmer, Carl. “Israeli Data Suggests Possible Waning successful Effectiveness of Pfizer Vaccine.” New York Times. 23 Jul 2021.
Jones, Rory and Dov Lieber. “Pfizer Covid-19 Vaccine Is Less Effective Against Delta Infections but Still Prevents Serious Illness, Israel Study Suggests.” Wall Street Journal. 23 Jul 2021.
“Lesson 3: Measures of Risk.” Principles of Epidemiology successful Public Health Practice, Third Edition. CDC website. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
“Why CDC Measures Vaccine Effectiveness.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
“How CDC Monitors COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Hotez, Peter Jay. Dean for the National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine. Phone interrogation with FactCheck.org. 26 Jul 2021.
Crotty, Shane. Professor, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, La Jolla Institute for Immunology. Email to FactCheck.org. 22 Jul 2021.
“The Ministry of Health Has Performed a Comparative Review of Confirmed Cases Data from January 2021 and July 2021.” Press release. Israeli Ministry of Health. 25 Jul 2021.
“COVID-19 vaccine surveillance reports.” Public Health England. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Planas, Delphine et al. “Reduced sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta to antibody neutralization.” Nature. 8 Jul 2021.
Liu, Jianying et al. “BNT162b2-elicited neutralization of B.1.617 and different SARS-CoV-2 variants.” Nature. 10 Jun 2021.
Lustig, Yaniv et al. “Neutralising capableness against Delta (B.1.617.2) and different variants of interest pursuing Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination successful wellness attraction workers, Israel.” Eurosurveillance. 1 Jul 2021.
Choi, Angela et al. “Serum Neutralizing Activity of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 Variants.” bioRxiv. 28 Jun 2021.
Carreño, Juan Manuel et al. “Reduced neutralizing enactment of post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination serum against variants B.1.617.2, B.1.351, B.1.1.7+E484K and a sub-variant of C.37.” medRxiv. 23 Jul 2021.
Lucas, Carolina. “Impact of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants connected mRNA vaccine-induced immunity successful uninfected and antecedently infected individuals.” medRxiv. 18 Jul 2021.
Suthar, Mehul S. et al. “Infection and Vaccine-Induced Neutralizing-Antibody Responses to the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 Variants.” New England Journal of Medicine. 7 Jul 2021.
“Moderna Provides a Clinical Update connected the Neutralizing Activity of its COVID-19 Vaccine connected Emerging Variants Including the Delta Variant First Identified successful India.” Press release. Moderna. 29 Jun 2021.
“Positive New Data for Johnson & Johnson Single-Shot COVID-19 Vaccine connected Activity Against Delta Variant and Long-lasting Durability of Response.” Press release. Johnson & Johnson. 1 Jul 2021.
Barouch, Dan H. et al. “Durable Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses 8 Months aft Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination.” New England Journal of Medicine. 14 Jul 2021.
Tada, Takuya et al. “Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Titers Elicited by mRNA and Adenoviral Vector Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 Variants.” bioRxiv. 21 Jul 2021.
Mandavilli, Apoorva. “J.&J. Vaccine May Be Less Effective Against Delta, Study Suggests.” New York Times. 20 Jul 2021.
Topol, Eric (@EricTopol). “Just retired @NEJM New information for J&J vaccine: —High titers of neutralizing antibody to Delta variant, betterment successful these levels seen implicit time —The antibody and T compartment effect was durable for astatine lest 8 months.” Twitter. 14 Jul 2021.
Krammer, Florian. “A correlate of extortion for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is urgently needed.” Nature Medicine. 8 Jul 2021.
Gounder, Céline (@celinegounder). “1/ Here is simply a broad reappraisal of the information connected whether we request COVID BOOSTER SHOTS…” Twitter. 20 Jul 2021.
McCullough, Peter A. Private signifier physician. Emails to FactCheck.org. 27 Jul 2021.
“SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and variants nether probe successful England, Technical briefing 17.” Public Health England. 25 Jun 2021.
Majumder, Maia (@maiamajumder). “As much folks get #vaccinated, the % of folks who get sick with #COVID19 & hap to beryllium vaccinated volition increase. This is expected (at rates that my squad & others are monitoring), & it doesn’t mean that #vaccines aren’t working; rather, it reflects the realities of probability.” Twitter. 16 Jul 2021.
Burn-Murdoch, John (@jburnmurdoch). “NEW: radical interest erstwhile they perceive “40% of hospitalisations are afloat vaxxed”, but this illustration shows that’s really bully news. The much radical you vaccinate, the higher their stock of hospitalisations, but the full fig successful infirmary is simply a fraction of what it would different be.” Twitter. 24 Jul 2021.
“COVID-19 Data Explorer.” Our World successful Data. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
“Press Briefing by White House COVID-19 Response Team and Public Health Officials.” White House. 1 Jul 2021.
McGowan, Lucy D’Agostino (@LucyStats). “Dear @CDCgov & @WHCOVIDResponse, Please halt reporting the % hospitalized that were unvaxed, we expect this % to alteration arsenic vaccines increase! Show % unvaxed / vaxed that are hospitalized (the flip!) truthful we tin amusement however awesome these effectual vaccines are! XO, A stats prof.” Twitter. 27 Jul 2021.
McGowan, Lucy D’Agostino. “Denominators Matter.” Blog post. 21 Jul 2021.
“COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Case Investigation and Reporting.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Musser, James et al. “Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 origin importantly accrued vaccine breakthrough COVID-19 cases successful Houston, Texas.” medRxiv. 22 Jul 2021.
Thompson, Mark G. et al. “Prevention and Attenuation of Covid-19 with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 Vaccines.” New England Journal of Medicine. 385:320-329. 22 Jul 2021.
Kumar, V. Jagadeesh et al. “Clinical outcomes successful vaccinated individuals hospitalized with Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.” medRxiv. 16 Jul 2021.
“ACIP Presentation Slides: July 22, 2021 Meeting.” CDC. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Wu, Katherine J. “Your Vaccinated Immune System Is Ready for Breakthroughs.” The Atlantic. 26 Jul 2021.
Bergwerk, Moriah et al. “Covid-19 Breakthrough Infections successful Vaccinated Health Care Workers.” New England Journal of Medicine. 28 Jul 2021.
“347 – COVID-19 Vaccines Update: Boosters, FDA Approval, New Vaccines, and More.” Public Health connected Call podcast. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. 19 Jul 2021.
“Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines.” NIH. Accessed 29 Jul 2021.
Rivers, Caitlin. Assistant Professor of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Email to FactCheck.org. 27 Jul 2021.
Marovich, Mary et al. “Monoclonal Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19.” JAMA. 15 Jun 2020.